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Freeze drying

Lyophilization or freeze-drying is a freezing process where water is removed from a product after it´s frozen and placed under a vacuum, allowing the ice crystals to change directly from solid state to vapor. This process is based on the physical phenomenon, sublimation, which allows for the direct transition from solid state to the liquid state.

Lyophilization is used in the drying of foods and the preservation of archival materials (ie books and documents), but mainly in the pharmaceutical and biotechnological research and industrial-scale production of cosmetic products or medicaments such as tablets.

The process goes through three separate steps, three interdependent processes – freezingprimary drying(sublimation), and secondary drying (desorption).

Freezing – in this step, the moist material is frozen below the temperature at which it cannot exist in the liquid state. This will ensure that there is no melting instead of sublimation.

Primary drying – during this phase, the air pressure in the freezer is reduced to several hundred Pascal. Then, heat is delivered (mainly by conduction and radiation) so that water can sublime. Thus, approx. 95% of the water is removed from the material.

Secondary drying – this stage is approached only in cases where it is needed to be even more dry state.  During this phase, the remaining non-frozen water molecules are removed, which are held on the surface of the solids by adsorption. After the second drying, about 1 to 5% of water remains in the material.


Freeze-dried products can be rehydrated much more quickly and easily. This is extremely important when it comes to pharmaceutical uses. Freeze-drying can also be used to increase the shelf life of some pharmaceutical products for many years.


  • Vaccines and antibodies
  • Blood plasma
  • Proteins
  • Enzymes
  • Hormones
  • Viruses and bacteria


  • Vaccines and antibodies
  • Antibiotics
  • Blood plasma
  • Proteins
  • Enzymes
  • Hormones
  • Viruses and bacteria
  • Active pharmaceutical ingredients
  • Pathological samples and cultures


During lyophilization, it is not necessary to use any risk preservatives or flavor enhancers. In this procedure, the food is first frozen rapidly. When sublimating the water crystals in food, they pass into the gaseous state in the form of water vapor. The meal retains the original texture and flavor.

  • Coffee
  • Fruit and juice
  • Vegetables
  • Meat
  • Fish and Seafood
  • Eggs
  • Dairy

According to recent research, freeze-dried foods store more vitamins and minerals than traditional hot air drying.


  • Archiving of documentation
  • Flower freeze drying
  • Cosmetic industry


To know more about the innovative eco-friendly solution suitable for those highly specific applications take a closer look at our MIRAI COLD product range.

Company address

Tuřanka 98/A, Brno 627 00
Czech Republic

+420 530 513 661

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